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Seaports are a key part of the EU’s trade network. Between2000 and 2013, the EU invested 6.8 billion euros in ports. Wefound that the port development strategies put in place bythe Member States and the Commission did not provideenough information to allow effective capacity planning tobe carried out. This had led to EU co-financed investmentsin port infrastructure being ineffective and unsustainable,with a high risk of around 400 million euros invested beingwasted. Road and rail connections to port hinterlands wereoften missing or inadequate, meaning that further publicfunding will be needed to make the initial port investmentswork well. We also found that the Commission had nottaken the necessary action in the area of state aid andcustoms procedures to allow ports to compete on a levelplaying field.