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This report examines the effectiveness of the EU’s fisheries control system – a key element in safeguarding the sustainability in the long term of fish stocks and the fishing sector. We found that the Member States were not yet carrying out all the required controls, and that the control system itself needed to be updated. There were weaknesses with the verification of the accuracy of their fleets' capacity, with the control of small vessels, with the reliability of reported catch data and with the equal treatment of fishing operators in the application of sanctions. We make a number of recommendations both to the European Commission and to the Member States to improve fisheries controls.