Phasing-out coal is essential for achieving the EU climate objectives, and in 2020 the EU established the €19.3 billion Just Transition Fund to support the transition to climate neutrality. To draw lessons for the implementation of this Fund, we assessed whether EU support in 2014-2020 had contributed effectively to the socio-economic and energy transition in EU regions where the coal industry had been in decline. We conclude that the support had limited focus and impact on job creation and energy transition and that, despite overall progress, coal remains a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions in some Member States. We recommend actions for the effective and efficient use of the Just Transition Fund, and for better measurement and management of methane emissions from closed or abandoned mines.
ECA special report pursuant to Article 287(4), second subparagraph, TFEU.